Review of policy instruments and their roles
in a policy mix

Contact: Irene Ring, UFZ 

© André Künzelmann / UFZ 


  • ­identify and describe key regulatory and economic instruments for biodiversity conservation
  • ­review existing experience regarding their effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and social impacts, and
  • ­assess the role of each of the selected instruments in a policy mix



Task 1 International review of policy instruments for biodiversity conservation

We describe and evaluate key policy instruments for the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity, with a special focus on those suitable for the conservation of forest ecosystem services and sustainable forestry. Building on international experience and literature such as TEEB, the state-of-the-art and knowledge gaps regarding the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, social impacts and institutional requirements of the following instrument categories will be identified:

  • ­ Regulation and planning instruments
  • ­ Tax reliefs for biodiversity conservation
  • ­ Payments for environmental services (PES) schemes at the national and local level
  • ­ International PES programmes: REDD and REDD+
  • ­ Ecological fiscal transfers
  • ­ Trading schemes, habitat banking and offsets
  • ­ Voluntary mechanisms and forest certification schemes


Task 2 Assessing the role of instruments in a policy mix

In practice, individual instruments do not exist on their own; they are usually implemented in a policy mix. Some instruments complement each other, whereas others may overlap and reduce effectiveness and/or efficiency. Therefore, the role of each of the instruments needs to be specified as a basis for further instrument design and impact evaluation in the POLICYMIX case studies.

Task 3 Lessons for multi-scale assessments of instrument mixes

Finally, the main lessons learned from WP2 are summarised in recommendations for multi-scale assessments of instruments and their transferability.